Socio-biological Implications of Confucianism


by Guangdan Pan

aka Quentin Pan


Springer: Heidelberg


Sponsored by the Chinese Fund for the Humanities and Social Sciences

& the Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press



(this is a collection of essays from the 1920s to the 1930s)




Some of these English language essays came from the Eugenics News magazine.


Essay One - in Eugenical News Nov. 1923

Eugenics in China: A Preliminary Survey of the Background

Page 1

There can be no racial decadence in nature.  It is only when culture (re: civilization) retards nature that birth rate becomes more important than death rate.


He cites Broca’s work as early measurement of racial differences.

On Chinese “The trunk is relatively longer and the limbs shorter than those of the Caucasians.”  They are less hairy.


4 – “The Japanese and Koreans contrast strongly with the Chinese in race mixtures, the former groups evincing strong clannishness in marital selections, the latter groups freely breeding ‘out.’


5 – The mother of the founder of the Chou dynasty was protective of environment when child was in utero.  No vulgar music.


6 – They also practiced ostracism.  Also, people who did not pass their exams were sent to a few other regions to take it and if they failed four times they were driven out of the country for life.


7 – Mencius said the greatest of all filial sins is to leave no posterity behind.


People from the same family name cannot allowed to marry since the 10th bc.  They also breed out so have great heterogeneity.


8 – But high level folks were discouraged from breeding with low level folks.

Preliminary recommendations for China:

1.       Eugenics education for all ala the Eugenics Education Society in London and the Eugenics Record Office in the US.

2.       Review of social institutions and emphasis on those that are conducive to racial health.  The family, for example, must be remodeled.

3.       Statistical studies and researches in the problem of population, in genealogy and anthropology with regards to anatomy.

4.       New Method and point of emphasis in animal and plant breeding.  

5.       The conservation of the rural population where the future strength of the race lies.


Essay Two In the Chinese Students’ Monthly June, 1925

Evaluation of Chinese Fraternities in America

Page 11

This has been growing among Chinese in America.

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen was in a secret fraternity for political reasons.

These frats (like the KKK) give little lives a sense of meaning.

Many Chinese in the US have absolutely no sexual life and little emotional outlet. There are few girls.  Frats create companionship.

And Chinese seem to need groups to find self-expression.

Chinese must produce leaders no “autistic and make-believe ‘brothers  There is no psychological short cut to this. 


Essay Three in the Chinese Students’ Monthly 1925 / 1933

Sociobiological Implications of Confucianism

Page 25

He will not try to read ‘racial welfare’ into Confucius.

Confucius refused to discuss problems of death and service to spirits saying it was not right when men did not yet understand life.

He was not optimistic about human nature.  Mencius was.   Mencius thus overemphasized human will. Since nature was infallible, human will had to be responsible for moral failings.

This is similar to the idea of total depravity and surrender in the face of depravity some Christians believe in.


28 – Confucius often contrasted the ‘superior man’ to the ‘inferior man.’ This was largely a matter of birth.  The contrast is 18 times in the analects and there are also many independents.


Those born “in possession of knowledge” are top; those who must learn it are next. Those who are dull but try to learn are next.  And, . . .


Mencius, by contrast, said all were equal but for nurture.  That is partially because Mencius lived after Feudalism collapsed and Lords and Peasants were no longer distinguished.   Mencius was also more of a social reformer than a scholar.


A student of nature must wonder whether a democracy, no matter how framed on paper, has ever existed or will ever exist.

representative government is often government by the vast middle.


32 – “Differentiation” is the underlying principle in Confucius’ teaching.   In the Doctrine of the Mean he writes: “Benevolence is the characteristic element of humanity, and the greatest exercise of it is in loving ones relatives.  Righteousness is the accordance of actions with what is fitting and proper, and the greatest exercise of it is honoring the worthy.  The decreasing measures of love due to relatives, and the gradations in honor due to the worthy are produced by the principle of propriety.


Differentiation with the state is first due to talents and worth and secondly to rank and position; within the family it is blood, then age.


The state’s duty is to find men of great ability and virtue and honor them without burdening them with any official duty.  To not raise them to great office quickly is disrespectful.


35 – This is innate and unequal, but egalitarian in that centuries before Confucius rulers were employing men of great talent regardless of where they came from.


The Han Dynasty made Confucianism orthodoxy.


36 – “The writer has throughout insisted that many teachings of Confucius such as underlying the system of civil selection are sociobiological.”  This was on scholastic attainment, not expert training, as with the civil service exam.


The necessity of differentiating one’s affections towards person is one of Confucianism’s cardinal parts.


Mencius fought Mo-ti because Mo-ti championed a ‘universal love’ doctrine.  This wiped out distinctions which nature had ordained.


37 – Mencius wrote, “It is the nature of things to be of unequal quality.   . . . If you reduce them all to the same standard, that must throw the empire in confusion.”


He also rejected a scholar who taught “each one for himself.”


TO the Chinese, family integrity, including revering ancestors, is the very basis of social and national solidarity.


Modern society of the West lacks this.


“Perhaps very few of us realize, and fewer will admit, that sentimentalism, a peculiarly Western social method of dealing with things and one leading nowhere, is a result, almost of a logical outcome, of the disruption of the family.”


38 – This is the source of both the birth control movement and the society for the protection of animals.


“Sentimentalism is nothing but a form of diffused and undifferentiated affection which Confucius and his school took special pains to point out as a subtle and yet powerful cause of social disintegration.”


China has democratization briefly in the 6th to 4th century bc.  But it stopped shortly after and the optimistic theories of Mencius, almost like Rousseau in the West, never took hold.   


39 - In that all could rise, though few did, the Chinese system was “aristodemocratic.”


Essay Four  in The China Critic, June 14th,  1928

An Anthropological View on China’s Troubles

Page 41


Chinese ask what is at the root of their troubles and four answers come to mind.  The lack of a unified government; poverty; ignorance due to illiteracy; and the interruptions of foreign imperialism. 

But which is most fundamental?


43 – Their population has been declining for nearly 100 years.  This is important as it indicates the vitality of the people.


44 – “It has also been suggested that the Chinese as a race is less variable than the European or less polymorphic.”  But the Binet – Simon shows them at least as competent as other races.


Another test measures “progressive adaptability.”  In this the Chinese are found less strong.


The Chinese is reserved and introspective and ready to compromise.  The Anglo-Saxon cannot understand this.


46 – 47 Repeated famines have given Chinese physical stamina. But those in the North have a sluggishness of perception found nowhere in the south.


Overpopulation in good years followed by scarcity makes them prepare for the future.  This makes them conservative.   

48 - The use of entrance exams has mitigated the sluggishness some have.  But, the test is going and so ‘our racial prospect is not particularly bright.”


Essay Five in The China Critic, July 5th, 1928

Why Christianity Fails in China

Page 49


50 - He says only Matthew Arnold in the West has noted that Christianity doesn’t always fit well with the West and so has Hebraism and Hellenism alternating.


51 – God is love doesn’t make sense to people who face famine and flood repeatedly.   And, worse, how could he allow the murder of his son?


52 – Thus the very sacrament of Christianity disproves it to the Chinese.


Confucius teaches that society must be based on a strong filial and parental relationship. 


53 – Also they cannot stomach a fake father figure in place of their real father. Ditto “brothers.”


Love thy neighbor as thyself is also not possible. Practicing it makes you too sentimental and not practicing it a hypocrite.


In Confucianism, the fellow members of one’s family, particularly the father and mother, are entitled to our kindest regards, whereas our neighbors, acquaintances, and fellow men are entitled to less and animals still less.


Essay Six 1928

China and Birth Control, in The China Critic, July 26, 1928

Page 55


Birth control is a double edged sword that cuts both ways.  It can hurt us too.


56 – There is too much emphasis on feeling in the movement due to the fact that it is led by women.  Therefore, it “easily played into the hands of the militant feminsts, who saw in it a weapon which would vindicate more effectively than anything the claim that “women must have control of their own bodies.””


“”Birth strike” becomes “practical politics.”  This is all very well for the feminist cause, but practical politics is oftentimes bad sociology and, what is worse, bad national and racial economy.””


57 – Seeing birthcontrol as a panacea has blinded people to the dangers and recognizing the import of both quality and quantity. 


Birth control requires forethought and so will naturally apply more to those with high brains that can remember to use it.


Mr. Wiggam (the Fruit of the Family Tree) asked, “Who is going to have the children – the wise, provident and strong, or the weak, thoughtless and stupid? There is no such thing as race-suicide. It is always class-suicide.”


58 – Having too few folks may lead to prosperity and so to luxury, indolence and so social and racial decay.


59 – Sanger lectured in China to Dr. Hu Shih of the New Thought Movement.


60 – Birth limitation must be put under some form of government or municipal supervision.  “With the lowest of social dregs, we need not bother about birth control; they must be restrained from taking any part in the reproduction of the race, preferably through segregation.”


61 - In China sex is being commercialized and exploited.  “The educated and professional classes must learn to realize their racial obligation and fulfill it.”


In addition to birth control we need “birth release.”



Essay Seven – in The China Critic, August 23, 1928

The Problem of the Cultural Hybrid

Page 63


The cultural hybrid is a person between China and America or two nations.  He is “wearisome to the foreigner” and “meaningless to the Chinese.”  The returned students social worth is questionable.


He is not sufficiently Chinese or non-Chinese.


65 - China, simply plunged into Westernization; but this put China in a whirlpool. “While we admit we are technically inferior to the West, it would be much more difficult to convince ourselves that Western social and ethical standards and institutions are any better than ours.”


66 – The Japanese have avoided deep westernization. Their women “are impermeable to the frivolities of modernity, for instance, voluntary childlessness and hair-bobbing.”  They have high tech without westernization.


68 – The Japanese student abroad is usually older, so more mature and aware of his home nation’s culture.  He usually specializes in a technical subject so doesn’t get ruined.

Having older people go abroad, will enable the person abroad to assume a critical attitude towards Western usages and morals, “which guards against the assimilation of anything frivolous, superficial, promising to be disruptive to our own social and moral order.”  And, it will facilitate re-entry to China.


Essay Eight From The China Critic, Sept 13th,  1928

Browbeating Prostitution?

Page 71


Shanghai had a five-year plan to get rid of prostitution.  They licensed the brothels and then revoked licenses by 20% a year.


This was too slow for zealots and did not / could not work.  It has just spread prostitution with less police control.



74 – The Shanghai Moral Welfare League is mostly made of preachers and the YMCA.  More than half are women.  Both make the approach sentimental.


Up to 50% of prostitutes are feebleminded – according to Goddard. 


76 - The women in charge of the regulation are often spinsters, making them hypocrites as they too don’t understand women’s healthy adjustment to the social order.  She doesn’t see it because she is well off.  The prostitute’s economic situation traps them. “The problem in both cases is the lack of proper adjustment of the sexual life in marriage and parenthood.”



Essay Nine – in the China Critic Oct 11th, 1928

Familism and the Optimum Family

Page 77


That family occupies a most fundamental social position is now generally conceded, even by individualists.  It is at the very root of our social existence.  The building block of society, Comte noted, is not the individual, but the family. 


Modern family disorganization is largely attributed to the rise of the individual.


Sociobiologists” have come to the same conclusion.


The West is forgetting that “the biological unit of human life is neither the individual nor the State, but the family.”


It follows that neither socialism or individualism is sound and are profoundly wrong and dangerous to human survival.


This is jarring to westerners as we have glorified the individual since the Renaissance and is entangled in a welter of socialistic theories.  “It is scarcely any exaggeration to say, he has almost forgotten that he was born of parents and thus has a genetic past.”


There is the Western family has no more than two generations under one roof, Vertically it has no use of the grandparents, and horizontally, the cousins. 


The optimum family should include all generations which are living.  This is patronymic and the female sibling marries out.  There can be splitting between siblings, but not generations.


Too wide a family – the greater family – which includes all sorts of cousins is a sociological mistake.  It is unwieldy and becomes a small community and thus you lose all allegiance to the primary group.   It also suffocates the individual by hemming them in.


If the greater family is a sociological mistake, the smaller family is a biological one.  It ignores genetic continuity. The parents look after the children and the children can largely ignore their aging parents.   80 – “Children who grow up in such a social atmosphere cannot be expected to have much racial consciousness.   A group that is ignorant, negligent, and even disrespectful of its biological past cannot be very mindful of its biological future, and it will suffer accordingly.”


81 – He is into “familism” as a philosophy.  The smaller family is too individualistic, the greater too socialistic – and assumes the spirit of a minute state and thus supplants patriotism.


Essay Ten – in the China Critic Nov 22nd, 1928

The Meaning of a National Examination System

Page 83


Prior to the exam, we read in “the Ceremony of Archery,” “Those whose deportment were in agreement with the rules of propriety and whose singing of odes was in harmony with the music, and further, who were able to make more scores at the bull’s-eye were selected.”


And so officials were selected due to merit, sans test.  And, favoritism crept in.


84 – In 132 AD as a reslt of a petition, two different types of competitive exams were adopted.  One on scholastic attainment in the classics, taken by the literary class; and another on the handling of official documents by the minor official class.  You could not take these until  you were 40 because the Analects says you have little intellectual maturity prior to this.


And while narrowness that stifled creativity crept in, other systems too had drawbacks.


The main object was to winnow, to classify and so give distinction to those whose virtue, talent, or attainment might exert some exemplary influence on the common people.


88 – The Civil service examinations pick men for jobs, but this system picked them for their own sake, and jobs might or might not come to them.


The historical Chinese had a genius for combining education and politics of which Confucius is the prototype. 


Particular to her genius, modern Americans employ the competent and worthy but gives them no distinction. England has a civil service exam, but lets the Royal Society do the honoring.   China combines both.


Essay Eleven -  in the China Critic Jan 17th, 1929

Glimpses into Universities

Page 89


Things that grow too quickly are abnormal and can go extinct quickly too.  With this in mind, what of the fast growing Chinese universities.


Many Chinese entrance exams are but a gesture, required by good education etiquette.


The average Chinese university student has no student life.  He is overloaded with classes.  People are starting to like research papers more than exams.


The degree is a cultural embellishment in the West it is a social necessity in China it is an economic asset.   But the universities are more standardized and of higher quality in the West.   What the future may hold for Chinese education, “we shudder to imagine.”


Essay Twelve – in The China Critic Feb 28, 1929

Notes on Modern Marriage

Page 95


“Modern marriage is almost a contradiction.”  So here we’ll discuss what is marriage for?  Marriage selection? Consanguineous and interracial marriage and the future of monogamy.


96 – Marriage satisfies sex and it perpetuates our kind.  In these days it also has a romantic function. 


In Asian countries it is also for the sake of serving aged parents or parents-in-law as the case is.    Marriage is also religious in that it involves a sacrament, not to a personal deity as with Christians, but to ones ancestors who possess a collective ancestor. 


They conducted polls and found the higher one’s education, the greater the importance attached to romantic life and companionship.   This is going the wrong way.  It shows our educational system is doing a disservice.


The bearing of children deserves stronger emphasis.  Romance that does not culminate in sexual gratification is debilitating, and sexual gratification unattended to by romantic touch is morbid.


If we live by instinct all is good, but we live by intelligence, false intelligence. And, we find this especially in marriage and politics.


Essay Thirteen – Submitted in 1929 to various places.

Chinese Colonization in Manchuria

Page 101

Herein we come to a series of focused essays without much broader interest – at least to me. So the summaries will be shorter. 


The first ming emperor, Hung Wu (1368 – 1398) was a man of insight and foresight; he saw that the space made by the retreating Mongols needed to be filled with population.


Those who settled Manchuria settled with families. China also put up garrisons.   The numbers of settlers is detailed herein.


1858 to 1928 was a period of steady growth.   Grain shipments and the population through 1928 are counted: How many stay and how many go.


Koreas started coming in the 1860s.  In 1928 there were 580,285.


China is said to have an overpopulation problem, but that doesn’t take into account the sparser populated areas.   Only 12.5% of the land in Manchuria is under cultivation.


Nearly a million Japanese and Korean folks are in China’s borders.  What is their status?  How will their relations with the native Chinese be governed?


Essay Fourteen – in The China Critic, Nov 28, 1929

The Third Session of the Institute of Pacific Relations

Page 123


First two in Honolulu, this one in Japan. America, Canada and Australia were big participants.


126 - The round tables of the first days were about “The Machine Age and Traditional Culture.”


Overall the top topics were: Culture and Cultural relations (35) titles; Natural resources, food supply and population (12) titles; China’s foreign relations: 14 titles; Interracial and International relations (17 titles) and Manchuria (15 titles).


Essay Fifteen – in The China Critic April 17th, 1930

Selection and Athletic Prowess

Page 129


Recent athletic games showed the “benign aspects of the effect of natural selection among the Chinese.” The two fastest runners were members of the Mukden delegation.  The northerners are longer-legged.  This is not a matter of practice.


90% of the population of Manchuria are refugees from Shantung and Hopei who have undergone famine and war. The more energetic make the move. Many came on foot along rivers.  Those who made the journey are the best runners.


Essay Sixteen from The China Critic, May 1, 1930

Bon Voyage to Chekiang Refugees

Page 131


Colonists are being resettled with an eye to equalizing economic situations in two parts of the country.   Previous relocations were done for military purposes.  This relieves overpopulation in one region and sends it to another. 


Those who moved are less tied down anscestorally than the others, some think this gives them an edge in competing with the progressive West.


Essay Seventeen  from The China Critic June 12th, 1930

Patrilineage and the Surname in the New Civil Code

Page 133


Some still mourn those dying without someone to carry on the family name.  Others argue surnames should be abolished because they violate the principle of sex equality, as the name has followed males in all of China’s history.


But from our point of view, there is much to be said for lineage, and even patrilineage.  The desire for perpetuating one’s memory is a psychological reality of no mean significance.


134 – The only justification for the lineage to be patronymic and not matronymic is that the course of social evolution has so shaped it and it is an integral part of the social system.

That this is not necessarily oppressive to women is seen in women having made great strides in recent years while the name tradition remains.


“In the last few years, Chinese women have agitated for the right to property inheritance, and they have quite succeeded.  But a right muyst be reciprocated by some form of obligation; and no obligation is more natural than to assume and preserve in good faith the surname of one from whom the property is acquired.”  Old people think that inheriting the property and not the family name is unfair.


Currently a man without a male heir may use his relatives on the paternal side.   While such an heir may satisfactorily do the formal duties of a son and descendant, he is biologically cut away from his adopted family.


This would be solved if the right as well as the duty of inheritance by a daughter were legally recognized.   Letting women take names and property would be more pure, biologically.


Essay Eighteen from The China Critic, June 26th, 1930

Consanguineous Marriage and the Law

Page 137


People who are closely related should not be married.   But what of cousins of different family lineages?


138 - People believe those in the same family line are sterile. 


139 – The problem is recessive defects in our blood streams.  Albinos come from this.


140 – While this is true, Cleopatra was the result of a brother, sister union.  Darwin married his cousin, Wedgewood.  Their children were prestigious.   And first cousin marriage from different family lines has been common in Chinese history.


Marrying close with segregating for defects is a way to purge the race of its constitutional defects and have its valuable qualities safeguarded and accented.

This article does not speak of same family name cousin marriage as that involves sociological as well as biological complications.


Essay Nineteen from The China Critic Sept 18, 1930

Genealogy in China: A Neglected Phase of Historical Study

Page 145


China has recorded genealogies for a millennium and a half longer than the West.  The Yellow Emperor’s lineage goes back to 2697BC.


War has dissipated and weakened family ties.


Between the 3rd and 8th century we had the golden age of genealogical recording.   The achievements of this period come under five headings: 

1) The National Genealogical Office

                  China must be proud of this as it has not been tried elsewhere.

2) The number and esteemed position of genealogists;

3) The place of genealogy in the library;

                  Wang Chieh was a noted bibiographer.  He was among the first to classify books.  Of the 7 categories he established, one was just for pedigrees and related charts.


4) The wealth of genealogical works, and

                  From this age we have 2,300 genealogy books.

5) The collaboration of genealogy and history.

                  Genealogy was the basis of civil service administration.  It was in the second half of this period and people looked to family lines that had provided productive administrators.

                  Genealogy also played a role in marriage selection.  People did not wish to marry below their lineage.


This art has degenerated since the Tang dynasty.  This is partially because it went from being official to private.  And also because genealogy has lost its status as an independent respected area of historical study.


Essay Twenty in The China Critic of Nov 20th, 1930

The Late Mr. Yuan Hsi-Tao

Page 153


This is a tribute to a man who toiled in education but whose reform proposals were unsung.  The best line “Knowing that they are working against all odds, and that whatever they may accomplish will soon be reduced to nought, nevertheless persists in working” only such rare mortals know what the struggle of life really means.


Essay Twenty-One in The China Critic, Feb 26th, 1931

Wither Chinese Womanhood?

Page 159

Should masculine or feminine views prevail on this issue?

We can compromise by saying ‘both.’

Some want a woman to birth as a woman; women want to be recognized as people as ‘homo’ and all the rights of humans.


160 – “Extremists in the so-called emancipation movement have indeed gone so far as to advise against marriage and motherhood, and as a matter of fact, it is becoming increasingly fashionable for a woman nowadays to forsake wifehood and maternity for the sake of a career, that is, for a life which will vindicate her status as homo.”


Women are equipped for one better than the other; but there is variation.  And, so all should be able to reach their potential. 

161 – Still propaganda takes women away who are maternally inclined. 


Following Bertrand Russell he thinks woman should have kids early and be free by 40 to do whatever they desire.  


162 – Women may wish for the freedom of men and men may be jealous of the ‘blessed state of bondage called maternity and motherhood.”


Feminism has constituted one important factor in the destruction of the Madonna ideal and the disintegration of the home.


Essay Twenty-Two from Symposium on Japan’s Undeclared War on Shanghai, by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, March 20th, 1932.

Japan’s Rape on Civilization

Page 163


164 – Many universities in China are listed and those that Japan has destroyed are listed.  A total of about 20 institutions have suffered from varying degrees of destruction.

This is vicious vandalism and an attack or rape on civilization.


Essay Twenty-Three from The China Critic, April 28th, 1932

Since Darwin’s Death

Page 177


Charles Robert Darwin was born on Feb 12th, 1890 and died on April 19th, 1882.   He married in 1839 the first year his doctrine of evolution by natural selection was first formulated.


From 1942 on his health was poor and this forced him to live in near seclusion.  Over the next 40 years nearly all his great works were produced.


178 – “Demagogues are still talking glibly about natural right, liberty, and equality which, as Thomas Huxley long ago pointed out, are diametrically opposed to the facts of variation and heredity which are the very foundation stones of the doctrine of evolution.  With the slow advocacy of eugenics and race hygiene initiated by Francis Galton, a first cousin of Darwin, we are only beginning to apply evolutionary principles to human affairs.  Eugenics has been not inaptly defined as conscious direction of human evolution.”


Evolutionary thought first came to China in “1896 when Huxley’s Evolution and Ethics was translated into Chinese by Yen Foh.   After that ‘struggle for existence,’ ‘natural selection,’ and ‘survival of the fittest’ were constantly on the lips of those who considered themselves progressive and advanced.”


Few notice the inconsistency with ‘equality’ and ‘rights.’  And those who use the lingo know very little of ‘struggle’ , ‘selection’ and ‘survival,’ so they are but hallow slogans.


On this the 50th anniversary, we must re-engage with Darwin.


Essay Twenty-Four In The China Critic, May 5th, 1932

Japan’s Southward Policy

Page 181

 In Hawaii, the Japanese are clannish and don’t intermarry.  In China, where they incur, they marry.  This is on purpose.


Essay Twenty-Five from The China Critic, May 12th, 1932

Bankruptcy of Higher Education

Page 183


There is a lack of funds which will be worse when indemnity funds stop coming from America.   Financial support for students is being cut off.


Essay Twenty-Six from the China Critic, June 23rd, 1932

From Lausanne to Lousan

Page 185

Herein he tells a sympathetic tale of post-war treaty’s harsh impositions on Germany.  And the nationalism of tariffs made it worse. 


The Asian Lousan conference has been more hopeful.  And the big message: “Rely upon Thyself.”


Where Lausanne (the Western treaty) looks for help from other quarters, Lousan (that of Asia) knows that outside assistance can never do. 


Essay Twenty-Seven from The China Critic June 30th, 1932

Some Vital Statistics from Kuala Lumpur

Page 189

 Chinese have very low deaths per birth rates in Kuala Lumpur.  Lower than in the US.  And there were 115 boys to every 100 girls.   Chinese are adjusting favorably to their new emigration habitat.


Essay Twenty-Eight from The China Critic, August 11, 1932

Manchuria as China’s ‘Life line’

Page 193


People note that Manchuria is China’s best mining district and an excellent outlet for its surplus population.  But, it is also the ‘Only existing breeding ground for some of the qualitative better elements in the population of China.”


Japan says the progress there is only due to its efforts. The Russians say the same of North Manchuria.   But the population is largely emigrants from China and they are as a rule adventurous and courageous in character.


194 – People who are willing to leave their home are ‘biologically speaking, superior in their mental and physical makeup.”  They are highly adaptable and courageous. 


It is an error to think of the colonization of Manchuria as recent.


Professor Huntington’s Character of Races has noted the excellence of the Manchurian population.


196 – One proof of its superior stock comes from its long list of notables.


Nearly all the young men who come from Manchuria are healthy and strong.  None of these women bind their feet and so they are tall well-built, and not morbidly reserved and shy.


Also this area has furnished China many brave soldiers. 

Manchuria is thus an integral part of China.  And, if this area were submerged into Japan, these intelligent and  courageous elements would be submerged in the sea of mediocrities and have no room to develop their talents.  


More important than the quantity of those in Manchuria is the quality.  It is the breeding ground of the best in our race. It is the life line of the Chinese people. 


Essay Twenty-Nine from The China Critic, Sept. 7, 1933.

Havelock Ellis as a Humanist

Page 199


Those who think that man is the supreme entity in this world and that man alone is capable of working out his own destiny are no doubt narrow humanists.  This is the sort that has come out of Unitarianism in America.    Dualists must be at loggerheads with their physical surroundings. Ellis is broad minded, not one of these.


Man is the central point of the universe from his own point of view. Ellis wishes to put us in harmony with nature.


Ellis was awoken by an epiphany.  He defines religion as “The art of finding our emotional relationshiop to the world conceived as a whole.”


201 – People think as a sex psychologist he must be romantic and run to excess in his personal habits.  Quite the opposite.   He sees that asceticism lies at the foundation of life.   Ellis looked at both sides and so often couldn’t take a side.  He likes extreme positions.


202 – Before him sex in the Christian west was only seen as prohibited or studied as aberrant and pathological.


He has helped many recover a normal attitude and interest in sex.  


203 – Sanely he rejects both ‘vulgar prudence’ and ‘categorical imperatives.”


Essay Thirty in The China Critic October 26th, 1933

Construction for Rehabilitation

Page 205


There is decorative and fundamental construction:  Which one has China been engaged in? Fads, beatification and decorative!  The construction should recognize the primacy of agriculture.   Irrigation projects are needed.


People point to a lack of money.  But such investments will pay returns.  They yellow river must be controlled; dykes are needed.   The American loans should also go to irrigation in the north.


Essay Thirty-One from The China Critic, January 11th, 1934

Ma Chun-wu

Page 211


This great leader combined western and eastern ideas to make a true gentleman. Born poor in 1881 he had a thirst for learning.  He studied in Japan and Berlin.  He translated massively, including Darwin’s work, Mill’s On Liberty, Principles of Sociology by Spencer.


He dressed in rustic clothes and chided Chinese for speaking in English when they could do so in the native tongue.  They, it turned out, were English instructors and he was the President of the university.


He is a good dancer and plays mahjong.  He grew his own food.



Essay Thirty-Two from The China Critic, March 8th 1934

Educational Facilities at Home

Page 215

Since the depression started more than a million overseas Chinese have returned home.   They are young and able bodied. Schools for returnees in China have serious defects.  Still it will help them adjust linguistically to China as they largely grew up with English.


Essay Thirty-Three The China Critic, April 19th 1934

Birth Control and Overseas Chinese

Page 217


An article notes that overseas Chinese are not doing well economically, but still no birth control has been advocated.   Folks are poor and keep having babies.


Birth control info needs to be disseminated.   The Great Depression has made this need more acute.   Relief is not enough. 


Page Thirty-Four from The China Critic, April 18th, 1935

Eugenics and Birth Regulations

Page 219


Birth control, not limits.  Because some people need more babies.  Birth control is not the same as contraceptives.  It sometimes means more babies.  As such, he prefers the term “birth regulation” to birth control.


And it can be used for good as well as ill.  As the Chinese say, “For a child to wield a sword, great must the havoc done.”


220 – It has been admitted that in the West the results of the contraceptive movement haven’t been totally happy.  Individualism and a mania for social service are the main causes.


And, dysgenic results have come from only smart people being able to get birth control info.  It is dumb for governments to try to stop the dissemination about birth control.


In the West this impact will be hard to reverse or steer.  The best thing would be making contraception info available to all.  But, in the West birth control came before the eugenics movement.  But, in China they came together.


China needs selective ministration (personal health) and social economy (for racial well-being) given consideration.


When we look at those who adopt it in the West, those high ups using birth control, may achieve fame and success for themselves and socially be doing good, but they are nothing short of deserters.


Essay Thirty-Five

The Chinese as Believers

Page 223


The thing that astounds westerners about China is how much religious diversity there is.  Animism, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Mohammedanism (in north-west China) and Christianity.  There are even a couple of thousand Jews, who have largely been absorbed, but have remnants in Honan.

Why no religious strife and persecution?  Before the intro of Islam and Christianity, there was no revealed religion.  So all were seen as instrumentalities to further man’s adaptability to nature and social life.  Bowing helps keep him in shape.


And, the influence of Confucian humanism moderates folks.  It is tolerant and does not deal in dogmatism and exclusiveness.  It also has no proselytizers, still less militant ones.  Collective fanaticism is seldom seen in Chinese history.