Metaphors we live by !!!


George Lakoff and Mark Johnson


  1. Concepts We Live By


††††††††††† Your claim is indefensibly

††††††††††† He attacked every weak point in my argument

††††††††††† His criticisms were right on target

††††††††††† I demolished his argument

††††††††††† Iíve never won an argument with him

††††††††††† You disagree?Okay shoot

††††††††††† If you use that strategy, heíll wipe you out

††††††††††† He shot down all of my arguments


It is important to see that we donít just talk about arguments in terms of war.We can actually win or lose arguments.We see the person we are arguing with as an opponent.


Imagine a culture where an argument is viewed as a dance.

The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.It is not that arguments are a subspecies of war.But argument is partially structured, understood, performed and talked about in terms of war.


  1. The Systematicity of Metaphorical Concept



Youíre wasting my time.

This gadget will save you hours.

I donít have the time to give you

How do you spend your time these days.

That flat tire cost me an hour.

Iíve invested a lot of time inher.

I donít have enough time to spare for that.

Youíre running out of time.

You need to budget your time better.

Put aside some time for ping pong.

Is that worth your while?

Heís living on borrowed time.

You donít use your time profitably.

I lost a lot of time when I got sick.

Thank you for your time.


In our culture time is money in telephone message units, hourly wages, hotel rates, yearly budges.These practices are new in the human experience.




  1. Metaphorical Systematicity: Highlighting and Hiding


  1. Orientational Metaphors
  2. Metaphor and Cultural Coherence
  3. Ontological Metaphors
  4. Personification
  5. Metonymy
  6. Challenges to Metaphorical Coherence
  7. Some Further Examples
  8. The Partial of Metaphorical Structuring
  9. How is our Conceptual System Grounded
  10. The Grounding of Structural Metaphors
  11. Causation: Partly Emergent and Partly Metaphorical
  12. The Coherent Structuring of Experience
  13. Metaphorical Coherence
  14. Complex Coherences across Metaphors
  15. Some Consequences for Theories of Conceptual Structure
  16. Definition and Understanding
  17. How Metaphor Can Give Meaning to Form
  18. New Meaning
  19. The Creation of Similarity
  20. Metaphor, Truth, and Action
  21. Truth
  22. The Myths of Objectivism and Subjectivism
  23. The Myth of Objectivism in Western Philosophy and Linguistics
  24. How Metaphor Reveals the Limitations of the Myth of Objectivism
  25. Some Inadequacies of the Myth of Subjectivism
  26. The Experientialist Alternative: Giving New Meaning to the Old Myths
  27. Understanding